For readers who would like to experience this book as an educational resource, we offer a number of additional references: audio material, book titles, and talks that expand on the ideas offered by this anthology. Among the sources listed below are works by and about Black artists and designers whose ideas intersect with the contributors to The Black Experience in Design, as well as writings and lectures by a number of this book’s contributors.  While this is not an exhaustive list, it does attempt to build upon the topics, themes, experiences, lessons, criticisms, and provocations shared in this book. You can also use the references and bibliographies accompanying the essays in this book to gain a deeper understanding of the topics they cover.

Reference areas...

Adams, Cey and Beckman, Janette. The Mash-Up: Hip Hop Photos Remixed by Iconic Graffiti Artists. New York: Hat & Beard LLC, 2019

Barber, Tiffany E., Nettrice Gaskins, Ricardo Guthrie, Grace Gipson, Ken McLeod, Andrew Rollins, Lonny Avi Brooks et al. Afrofuturism 2.0: The Rise of Astro-blackness. Lexington Books, 2015.

Benjamin, Ruha. Race after technology: Abolitionist Tools for the New Jim Code. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2019.

Bennett, Audrey C. and Heller, Steven. Design Studies: Theory and Research in Graphic Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. 2006.

Birdsong, Mia. How We Show Up: Reclaiming Family, Friendship, and Community. New York: Hachette Books, 2020

Lonny J. Avi Brooks and Barbara Keyser (eds). Gaming as Imagination Technology. San Diego: Cognella Academic Publishing, 2013.

brown, adrienne maree. Emergent Strategy: Shaping Change, Changing Worlds. Oakland, CA: AK Press, 2017.

Butler, Octavia. Parable of the Sower. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1993.
Crenshaw, Kimberle (ed.). Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings That Formed the Movement. New York: The New Press, 1995.

Douglas, Emory. Black Panther: The Revolutionary Art of Emory Douglas (with new introduction by Colette Gaiter). New York: Rizzoli, 2014.

W.E.B. DuBois Center at the University of Massachusetts. W. E. B. Du Bois's Data Portraits: Visualizing Black America, New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2018.

Duffy, Damian and Jennings, John. Octavia Butler's Kindred: A Graphic Novel Adaptation. New York: Abrams Comicarts, 2018.

Eglash, Ron. African fractals: Modern computing and indigenous design. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1999.

Escobar, Arturo. Designs for the Pluriverse: Radical Interdependence, Autonomy, and the Making of Worlds. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2018.

Haygood, Wil. I Too Sing America: The Harlem Renaissance at 100. New York: Rizzoli, 2018.

hooks, bell. Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Jennings, John and Duffy, Damian. Black Comix Returns. St. Louis: Magnetic Press, 2020.

Jolivette, Andrew (ed.) Research Justice: Methodologies for Social Change. Chicago: Policy Press at the University of Chicago, 2015.

Kince, Eli. Visual Puns in Design: The Pun Used as a Communications Tool. 1982. (currently out of print)

Levine, Gabriel. Art and Tradition in a Time of Uprisings. Boston: MIT Press, 2020.

M’Rithaa, Mugendi K. Universal Design in Majority World Contexts: sports mega-events as catalysts for social change. ‎ Moldova: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2011.

Mafundikwa, Saki. Afrikan Alphabets: the story of writing in Afrika, Brooklyn: Mark Batty Publisher; 2006. (currently out of print)

Morgan, Jo-Ann. The Black Arts Movement and the Black Panther Party in American Visual Culture. New York: Routledge, 2018.

Niemann, Yolanda Flores, Gutierrez y Muhs, Gabriella, and Gonzalez Carmen G. Presumed Incompetent: Race, Class, Power, and Resistance of Women in Academia. Louisville, CO: Utah State University Press, 2020.

Nucera, Diana and Onuoha, Mimi. The People’s Guide to A.I. Brooklyn: Pioneer Works Press, 2020 (out of print)

Okorafor, Nnedi. Binti: The Complete Trilogy. New York: DAW Books, 2020

Nell Irvin Painter. Old in Art School: A Memoir of Starting Over. New York: Catapult, 2018.

David Pilgrim. Understanding Jim Crow: Using Racist Memorabilia to Teach Tolerance and Promote Social Justice. Oakland: Ferris State University and PM Press, 2015.

Leigh Raiford and Heike Raphael-Hernandez (eds). Migrating the Black Body: The African Diaspora and Visual Culture. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2017.

Bahia Shebab and Haytham Nawar. A History of Arab Graphic Design. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 2020.

Linda Tuhiwai Smith. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. London: Zed Books, 1999.

Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor. How We Get Free: Feminism and the Combahee River Collective. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2012.

Ebony Elizabeth Thomas, The Dark Fantastic: Race and the Imagination from Harry Potter to the Hunger Games. New York: New York University Press, 2019.

Adreinne Waheed. Black Joy and Resistance (with introduction by Rhea Combs). Brooklyn: Waheedpix, 2018.

Kelly Walters. Black, Brown + Latinx Design Educators: Conversations on Design and Race. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2021.

Ted Wells (ed). Bohemian Highways: Art & Culture Abide Then Divide Along the California Coast (with essay by Colette Gaiter). Lakewood, WA: Guardian Stewardship Editions; 2015.

Michelle Joan Wilkinson. For Whom It Stands: The Flag and the American People. Baltimore: Reginald F. Lewis Museum, 2016. (currently out of print)

Craig Wilkins. The Aesthetics of Equity: Notes on Race, Space, Architecture, and Music. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007.

Ytasha Womack. Afrofuturism: The World of Black Sci-Fi and Fantasy Culture. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 2013.


Benjamin, Ruha. "Innovating inequity: If race is a technology, postracialism is the Genius Bar." Ethnic and racial studies 39, no. 13 (2016): 2227-2234.

Bennett, Audrey C., “Towards an autochthonic black aesthetic for graphic design pedagogy,” Journal of Design Research 3, no. 2 (2003): 61-70.

Berry, Anne H., “The Black Designer’s Identity,” Recognize Anthology, 2019

Berry, Anne H., “The Virtual Design Classroom,” Communication Arts, 2021

Crenshaw, Kimberlé, Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Anti-discrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics, (University of Chicago Legal Forum, 1989).

Gaiter, Colette, “Visualizing a Black Future: Emory Douglas and the Black Panther Party,” Journal of Visual Culture, December 17, 2018

hooks, bell, “An Aesthetic of Blackness: Strange and Oppositional,” Lenox Avenue: A Journal of Interarts Inquiry 1 (1995): 65–72.

Jackson, Dorothy, “The Black Experience in Graphic Design: 1968 and 2020,” The Letterform Archive, July 8, 2020.

Khandwala, Anoushka, “Decolonization Means Many Things to Many People – Four Practitioners Discuss Decolonizing Design,” AIGA Eye on Design, February 20, 2020.

M’Rithaa, Mugendi K, “The Afrikan Maker: hacking our way into a hybrid future,” pp. 21-30 in S. O’Hara; V. Bradburry  & J. Newin (eds), Art Hack Practice: Critical Intersections of Art, Innovation and the Maker Movement. London: Routledge.

Miller, Cheryl D., “Black Designers Missing in Action,” Print, 1987.

Murphy, Zoe Loring, “Threads: Unpicking the Writing Systems Embedded in African Textiles,” Femme Type, October 18, 2021.

Rittner, Jennifer (ed), “The Policing Issue,” Design Museum Magazine, Spring 2020.

Rittner, Jennifer et al., ”Design Leadership: Now What?” Medium, 2020.

Walters, Kelly, "Open Dialogue: Artists and Designers of Afro-Caribbean Descent,” Design  & Culture, Volume 12, Issue 1.

Walters, Kelly and Khandwala, Anoushka, “On Breaking Down Power Structures, Navigating Tokenism + Building Community in Design Education,” AIGA Eye on Design, 2020

Walters, Kelly and Sales, Kaleena, "Perspectives & Reflections: Thoughts on Identity, Race, and Design Education," AIGA Design Educators Blog, 2020.

Wilkins, Craig, “It’s Time For Architects to Accept Responsibility,” Curbed, July 21, 2021.

Williams, Lauren (edited by Nida Adbullah), “not even the icing on the cake,” Criticisms on Design Pedagogy: On the Redistribution of Power!, February 2021

Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi, “The danger of a single story,” TED2009

Aye, George (Host), “Restorative Design Conference 2020,” Greater Good Studio, Vimeo.

Benjamin, Ruha, “Interrogating Equity,” National Academies, Vimeo. December 1-3, 2015,

Cherry, Maurice, “Where are the Black Designers?” Open Transcripts, March 23, 2015,

Charwey, Simon (Host), “Typographics Conference Day 9,” The Cooper Union. YouTube, June 29, 2021,

Eglash, Ron, “The Fractals at the Heart of African Designs.” TEDGlobal 2007

Gibson, Dustin, “Grounding Movements in Disability Justice,” DJGrounding, YouTube. April 23, 2020,

Hyphen Labs, “Virtual Reality: NeuroSpeculative AfroFeminism / BK Stories,” BricTV, December 11, 2018,

Jennings, John, “The Souls of Black Comix,” Weapons of Mass Creation Fest, 2013, Vimeo.

Kennedy, Amos, “Amos Kennedy Prints Timelapse Video,” Daylight Blue Media, Vimeo. February 16-19, 2011

Mafundikwa, Saki, “Ingenuity and elegance in ancient African alphabets,” TED2013

Mafundikwa, Saki and Red Wing, Sadie, “Sparks Series: Design Education as Activism, Advocacy, & Sovereignty,” Design for America, YouTube. Sept 2, 2020

Steiner, Marc and Douglas, Emory, “The Life and Times of Emory Douglas, Minister of Culture in the Black Panther ... .” YouTube. Real News Network, November 14, 2014 

Turner, Farmer Renard, “This Black Farmer Changed My Life! - First Time I Saw Farmer Turner Speak (Black Farmer Series),” YouTube. (14:46), Oct 17, 2018

Winchester III, Woodrow W, “Primer 2020 – Engaging the Black Ethos: Afrofuturism as a Design Lens for Inclusive Technological Innovation.” Design Futures Initiative, Vimeo. 2020

Wray, Dr. S. Ama (video host), “Ash Baccus-Clark: Theater of the Mind.” Vimeo, January 21-22, 2021,


Center for Urban Pedagogy, Rick and Dick: A Visual Primer

Creative Reaction Lab, Field Guide: Equity Centered Community Design

Digital Civics Toolkit

Dignity in Schools, Restorative and Transformative Justice Toolkit

Gibson, Dustin P., Disabled Elders Fund

Mercer, Lisa and Moses, Terresa, Racism Untaught: Revealing and Unlearning Racialized Design,

National Equity Project, Liberatory Design Card Deck

National Innovation Service, Equity-based Decision-Making Framework

Noel, Lesley-Ann, Critical Alphabet


African American Policy Forum

Afrorithms from the Future

Another Africa

BIPoC Design History

Black Blossoms

Black Organizing for Leadership and Dignity (BOLD)

City as a Living Laboratory (CALL)

Cogburn Research Group, 1,000 Cut Journey

Dark Matter exhibition

Design as Protest Collective

Design Justice Network

Fungi Dube, Threads: A visual journey through the writing and graphic systems embedded in Afrikan textiles

Festac ‘77 Archive


Jon Gray of Ghetto Gastro Selects, Cooper-Hewitt

Annika Hansteen-Izora, Creative Ecosystems & Funds Supporting Black Folks,

HMNTY CNTRD, courses and masterclasses

Ikire Jones. Our Future Heritage collection, 2017

Kerry James Marshall on Art21 (video)

Nan. Designing Afrikan Fonts: The N’ko Alphabet

Native Graphic Designers List

Pan-African Design Institute

Recognize Anthology

Shades of Noir

Stony Island Arts Bank

World Design Organization



Aaraj, Grace (Host). Design for Spatial Justice, “Craig Wilkins: Design Activism – The Desire and the Necessity,” (University of Oregon), March 23, 2021

Best, Ahmed and Brooks, Dr. Lonny (Hosts). The Afrofuturist Podcast.

brown, adrienne maree and Reagon, Toshi (Hosts). Octavia’s Parables, “BONUS: Earthseed verses zine from a member of our Facebook community!” September 14, 2021

Calmese, Dario (Host). The Institute of Black Imagination.

Cherry, Maurice (Host). Revision Path, “Emory Douglas,” Episode 5, January 20, 2014,

Crenshaw, Kimberle (Host). Intersectionality Matters, “The Story of Us (Parts I and II),” March 23 and April 16, 2021

Day, Leila and Baba, Hana (Hosts). The Stoop: Stories from Across the Black Diaspora, “All Black Everything?” December 18, 2019 (art by Neema Iyer)

Demby, Gene (Host). Code Switch, “A Utopia for Black Capitalism (the story of Soul City),” NPR, April 21, 2021

Farber, Paul (Host). Monument Lab, “Monumental “Local Diaspora” in St. Louis with MADAD’s Damon Davis, Mallory Rukhsana Nezam, and De Nichols” Episode 27

Kumanyika, Chenjerai and Hitt, Jack (Hosts). Uncivil, “The Takedown,” Gimlet, October 18, 2017

Lopez, Sabine Maxine (Host). A Tribe Called Queer

Martin, Jeff (Host). Museum Confidential, “The Smithsonian Goes Hip Hop,” NPR. September 16, 2021 (featuring Cey Adams) and Rick Lowe (on the Greenwood Art Project), May 10, 2021

Matsinde, Tapiwa (Host). Behind the Design (Atelier55),

Schumacher, Eunice Nanzala and Laker, Penina Acayo (Hosts). My African Aesthetic,

Springer, Devyn (Host). Groundings, “The Role of Artists Beyond Celebrity,” November 1, 2020

Stanford, Dawan (Host). Design Thinking 101.

Tejan-Thomas Jr., Saidu, (Host). Resistance, “I Want to Report a Theft,” Gimlet,

Wilbur, Matika (Swinomish and Tulalip) and Keene, Adrienne (Cherokee) (Hosts). All My Relations, “Native Appropriations,” April 17, 2019